The Ordnance QF 18 pounder, or simply 18-pounder Gun, was the standard British Empire field gun of the World War I era. This made the role of the Observing Officer crucial for 18 pounder batteries engaging targets as they could no longer rely on direct line of sight. Redistributed by US Army War College August 1917. Examples are QF 3 pounder Vickers, QF 18 pounder field gun, QF 4 inch Mk V anti-aircraft gun and the current 4.5 inch Mark 8 naval gun. A hand held mechanical fuze setter was developed, and in early 1914 a "fuze indicator" was introduced, this converted the range into a fuse setting. Examples are QF 3 pounder Vickers, QF 18 pounder field gun, QF 4 inch Mk V anti-aircraft gun and the current 4.5 inch Mark 8 naval gun. The latter were a shrapnel type shell using thermite pellets, although a black powder incendiary shell for AA use against Zeppelins was introduced in 1916.[66]. Tris: 15587. Ch. During the Second World War, the guns were mainly used by the British Expeditionary Force and were used in northern France and North Africa. The British also immediately replaced the original all-steel wheels with standard British wooden spoked wheels. In 1900 General Sir Henry Brackenbury, the then Director-General of Ordnance, sent officers to visit European gun makers. Mark I and II guns were still in use in the post-World War I era, and some even saw combat in the Far East in World War II. They describe, in vivid detail, how in theory and practice the use of artillery developed in different ways among the opposing armies, and they reveal how artillery men on all sides coped with the extraordinary challenges that confronted them on the battlefield. February 1917. Glossary of British ordnance terms - Wikipedia On establishment in 1916 and 1917, the first two mounted divisions had been supplied with 18–pounder artillery guns. Colonel GWL Nicholson, "The Gunners of Canada - The History of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery", Volume 1 1534-1919, 1967, General Staff Branch, Army HQ India, "The Third Afghan War 1919 Official Account", 1926, Northling, Commandant CJ, Ultima Ratio Regum - Artillery History of South Africa, 1987, Official History of the Ministry of Munitions, Volume X The Supply of Munitions, Part IV Gun Ammunition: Explosives, Official History of the Ministry of Munitions, Volume X The Supply of Munitions, Part II Gun Ammunition: General, Official History of the Ministry of Munitions, Volume X The Supply of Munitions, Part III Gun Ammunition: Shell Manufacture. The QF 1 pounder, universally known as the pom-pom due to the sound of its discharge, was a 37 mm British autocannon, the first of its type in the world.It was used by several countries initially as an infantry gun and later as a light anti-aircraft gun. "Shrapnel Shell Manufacture. Facsimile reprint by Naval & Military Press, 2005. The limited traverse saddle supported the elevating mass and a shield. The 18-pounder was developed in the aftermath of the Boer War, where the British Army’s existing artillery had proved inferior to the more modern guns owned by the Boers. High quality game ready asset QF 18-Pounder Gun. The committee was chaired by General Sir George Marshall, who had been artillery commander in South Africa. The Ordnance QF 18-pounder field gun Mk.IV was a modernised version of the 18-pounder Mk.I, but didn’t enter service until late in the First World War.. The Ordnance Quick-Firing 17-pounder (or just 17-pdr) was a 76.2 mm (3 inch) gun developed by the United Kingdom during World War II.It was used as an anti-tank gun on its own carriage, as well as equipping a number of British tanks. An experimental Mk III gun was developed in 1916. By mid-morning obervers were engaging massed German infantry but these pressed forward and reached just east of Hamel. 611 18-pounder were converted to 25-pounders before the war, and 829 during it. After escaping across the English Channel from Dunkirk, the British Expeditionary Force had to leave behind 216, which were taken over by the German Wehrmacht. Fully illustrated with period photographs and specially drawn colour artwork and drawing upon the latest research, this engaging study explains the rapid development of artillery tactics and techniques during the conflict in which artillery played a pre-eminent role - World War I. In 1914 the artillery of Britain's 'Field Army' encompassed those weapons judged to have sufficient mobility to keep up with troops in the field. Introduction of a new streamlined shell, Mk 1C, with a 4/7.5 crh increased maximum range to 11,100 yards with Mks III, IV and V carriages.[28]. During the Second Boer War from 1899 to 1902, the British troops came to the realization that their own guns were clearly inferior to those of the Boers, who came from French and German production. gas shells, smoke shells, star shells and so on) and more imaginative ways of using them, such as box barrages and creeping barrages. HE without delay was assessed as effective only if it burst actually in the enemy trench. Armata 18-funtowa powstała w wyniku poszukiwania nowoczesnej szybkostrzelnej armaty polowej dla Armii Brytyjskiej na początku XX wieku. New York: Industrial Press, 1916. First built in 1904, by 1914 some 1225 guns had been produced and the gun remained in production throughout the Great War with a total of White phosphorus smoke shells became available in small quantities in 1916, and in 1918 chemical and incendiary shells were provided. Facsimile reprint by Imperial War Museum and Naval & Military Press, 2008. Its calibre (84 mm) and hence shell weight were greater than those of the equivalent field guns in French (75 mm) and German (77 mm) service. Ammunition for the Field Artillery Barrage, January 1917. It was generally horse drawn until mechanisation in the 1930s. This demanded more and heavier guns and high-explosive shells, and more complex skills for indirect fire - observation on the ground and in the air, locating targets (including enemy artillery), dropping the right kind of shells on them, the communications needed for co-ordinating the work of hugely increased numbers of guns, and getting many millions of shells up to them for week-long bombardments. Would you like to change the currency to Pounds (£)? They were used for wire cutting and most importantly in the creeping barrage where they prevented defenders from manning their trench parapets during a British assault. Saved by Peer Into The Past. Additional equipment received by the army in 1941 included 4 18-pdr guns. The Ordnance QF 18-pounder field gun Mk I was the British Army’s standard field gun of the First World War, and after some teething troubles developed into a reliable weapon. The Ordnance QF 15 pounder gun, commonly referred to as the Ehrhardt, was a modern German field gun purchased by Britain in 1900 as a stopgap measure to upgrade its field artillery to modern QF standards, while it developed its own alternative. High quality game ready asset QF 18-Pounder Gun. The 18-pounder's role was spelled out following the Somme battles "... primarily in barrage fire, repelling attacks in the open, raking communications, wire cutting and sometimes for neutralising guns within their reach, destroying breast-works and barriers with HE and preventing repair work on defenses beyond the reach of infantry weapons"[41], 18-pounder ammunition requirements were predominantly shrapnel during 1916, although in the latter part of the year it shifted back to equality between HE and shrapnel. Image from the Public Domain. The Ordnance QF 18-pounder gun was the standard gun of the Royal Field Artillery and with over 10,000 pieces the most-produced gun. Combat use. Until September 1914 the only 18-pounder issued shell was shrapnel, fitted with a No. [38], After the Armistice in 1918, some British and Canadian 18-pounders, including a battery transported portee, were in the British Army of the Rhine in the Rhineland. Recoil was by a hydraulic buffer with telescopic running-up springs to return the barrel to its firing position. [46], At the opening of the Battle of Arras on 9 April 1917 the order was for 18-pounders to fire 50% HE and 50% shrapnel in the creeping barrage ahead of the advancing infantry, with one gun for every 20 yards of front. Development during t… [38], Field artillery (both 18-pounder and 4.5 inch howitzer) was used successfully during the pre-Zero fire in the Battle of the Somme in late June-early July 1916, when the British heavy artillery damaged German defensive works and forced troops into the open to rebuild them they were successfully fired on with shrapnel. The artillery war fell into three distinct phases along a four-year learning curve (with the necessary equipment and training for the second and third phases always lagging behind the tactical needs). During World War I, the 18 pounder was the standard field gun … The recuperator spring problem was rectified with the new Mk II carriage officially introduced in the field in November 1916 with a hydro-pneumatic recuperator design which replaced the recuperator springs and could be fitted into the existing spring housing by battery officers in the field. In 1903, the prototype was presented and met the expectations of the committee, so that from 1904 the first guns could be delivered to the British army. From 1916 light and medium mortars were increasingly used to blow aside barbed wire obstacles. It had a semi-automatic horizontal sliding block breech, with the recoil mechanism below rather than above the gun barrel. This, with its sight mount that again included a sight clinometer, replaced the No 3. Some Royal Horse Artillery batteries were also re-equipped with it as their 13 pounders proved unsuited to the prevalent trench warfare. In 1925, some guns were experimentally fitted on a Medium tank chassis as self-propelled artillery (the "Birch Gun"),[26] the Birch gun was used for the exercises of the Experimental Mechanized Force in 1927-1928. Mk2 gun on Mk 1 carriage at the South African National Museum of Military History, Mk II Gun on High-angle Anti-aircraft mounting, Mk II Gun on Mk I Carriage with armoured oil reservoir on recuperator. Q.F. Quick firing (QF). II gun being inspected by General Georges at Orchies in April 1940. The Gun. Starting in 1938, carriages Marks IV and V were converted to 25 Pounder Ordnance QF Mark 1 on Carriage Mark 1. This was a conversion from the 18-pdr Mk IV fitted with a sliding block breech. [38] In July 1916 standard contract prices for UK produced shells were 12 shillings and 6 pence (62.5 pence in modern terms) for HE and 18 shillings and 6 pence for shrapnel. It was produced … It formed the backbone of … Reprinted in US War Department Notes on Recent Operations, July 1917. Range Table for Ordnance QF, 18-pr Mks I to V 2CRH Shrapnel, 4/7.5 CRH HE, 1929, Range Table for Ordnance QF, 18-pr Mks I to IV 2CRH Shrapnel, 4/7.5 CRH HE, 1929, The Official History of the Ministry of Munitions, Volume X, The Supply of Munitions, Part 1 Guns, David Horner, "The Gunners - A History of Australian Artillery", 1995, Chapter 5, Official History of the Ministry of Munitions Volume X Part I pg 7, Official History of the Ministry of Munitions Volume X Part II Gun Ammunition: General. 18-pounder carried 374 of the 41/pound size bullets. A major lesson learned in 1914 was that the early British doctrine of positioning field guns in open or semi-open positions made them vulnerable to enemy artillery fire, and subsequently more use would be made of available sheltered and hidden positions for firing. The calibre increased from 84 mm to 87.6 mm by changing the liner. 6 men operated the gun in action. The gun barrel was wire boundnickel-steel with a single-motion screw breech with a cartridge extractor. For this purpose, an equipment committee was formed, which sat down under the direction of General Sir George Marshall with the artillery commanders of the Boer War and made demands on new guns. By the following year 25 18-pdr guns were on hand and 3 more were delivered in 1933. Its calibre of 84mm and shell weight made … Includes the following PBR texture types Normal Map 4096x4096 Diffuse 4096x4096 Roughness 4096x4096 Metallic 4096x4096 Ambient Occlusion 4096x4096 . A time fuze was set to initiate the shell in the air in front of the target. The design did not enter service.[25]. The 2-wheeled ammunition limber was hooked up to the horses and the trail of the gun was hooked up to the limber, so the total weight of the gun and trail were supported on 4 wheels. 1, 40 pounder 18 pounder 16 pounder 12 pounder 12 pounder 8 pounder 7 pounder 4 pounder 3 pounder, Cannon. At the behest of the British High Command, British manufacturers were also to work on modern guns and develop concepts. The lessons that were finally learned shaped the use of artillery worldwide for the rest of the 20th century. It was determined that a 1-pound projectile would be th… About the QF 18 Pounder - World War I Field Gun: The Ordnance Quick Firing 18 Pounder (weight refers to the weight of the shell) was developed as a rapid-firing artillery piece for use by British and Dominion armies. Official History of the Ministry of Munitions Volume X Part III Gun Ammunition: Shell Manufacture, "Artillery in Offensive Operations", Appendix IV, January 1917, "Artillery in Offensive Operations", 13. the shell and brass cartridge case were loaded as a single unit, much like a large rifle cartridge), and fitted with a nose fuze. The marks of the shell fire can still be seen on the walls of the Four Courts. The gun saw service in every theatre of the Great War. The original shrapnel shells had a relatively blunt ogive - 1.5 circular radius head (crh), the newer ones were 2 crh. Paul Strong and Sanders Marble, in this important and highly readable study, seek to balance the account.Their work shows that artillery was central to the tactics of the belligerent nations throughout the long course of the conflict, in attack and in defense. 18 pounder at CWM in Ottawa 18 pounder at CWM in Ottawa War Office, 1915. Redistributed by US Army War College April 1918. The departing British Forces were criticised for the lack of training they had imparted to the gunners of the infant Irish artillery corps, and for providing shells intended to destroy barbed wire rather than the normal HE shells. However, the 18-pounder entered service with rocking bar (also called "bar and drum") sights - open sights with the option of a telescope on the left and a range scale (in yards) on the right of the cradle. New York: Industrial Press, 1915. In World War I these were joined by Beardmore, and, in the US, Bethlehem Steel. [24] It is identified by the 10-inch (250 mm) torpedo-shaped extension on the recuperator, which made the recuperator assembly nearly as long as the barrel and hence altered the equipment profile. The British advance in pursuit of the German army in early 1917 as it withdrew to stronger positions on the Hindenburg Line brought a brief resumption of mobile warfare, and from the experience GHQ emphasised the need to get all light weaponry as far forward as possible to support infantry, and that "Covering fire of 18-pounders and 4.5 inch howitzers can not be too far exploited" [i.e. Pre-war experiments with 18-pounder HE shells had been inconclusive in terms of their benefits. The guns remained in FCA service until the late 1970s when they were replaced by the 25-pdr and 120 mm mortars. howitzers of the Royal Field Artillery batteries. The Quick Firing (QF) 18 Pounder was the principle Field Gun of the British Army in World War One. The 18-pounder was used on all fronts during the First World War. Initially this was by fitting heavy wooden wheels with solid rubber tyres, the carriages becoming Mks IIITR, IVR and VR. These were tested in 1902, but none were found suitable for service although they all had good features. [35] Britain had no choice but increase the amount of heavy artillery but did not plan to reduce the scale of field artillery because of the need for what would later be called 'close support'. Traverse controls were on t… Gun, Mk II, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Ordnance_QF_18-pounder?oldid=4537079. MkVIWirelessElectricPTube.jpg 537 × 800; 76 KB ISBN 1-84734-884-X. While a few commanders varied this slightly, such as Brigadier-General Tudor, CRA of 9th Division, who chose 75% HE and 25% smoke, the opening was notable for the first use of a coordinated fireplan across the whole front of several armies, with a common strategy linking infantry with artillery and coordinating the advance of various types of artillery. Nevertheless a de facto decrease had happened due to expansion limiting field batteries to 4 guns. Some of the guns were also converted to 25-pounders. After World War I the variety of ammunition was reduced although an armour piercing HE shell was developed. gaining and holding new advanced positions). They were used as "84 K/18" during the Continuation War by Field Artillery Regiment 8, 17th Division. The lower carriage comprised a single hollow steel trail fixed to the centre of the axle-tree. The regular armys field batteries re-equip with the 25 pounder in 1949 but 37 18-pdr guns were still in use with the reserve FCA. Also, the Royal Horse Artillery received some guns, after the movement war became a position war and the cavalry also needed heavy artillery. The 18-pdr was introduced to the Irish National Army in 1922 on the foundation of the state. Anti-Aircraft Artillery, 1914-55", Brassey's, 1994, ISBN 1-85753-099-3. Especially the field guns of the German company Rheinische Metallwaren und Maschinenfabrik were very modern and so secretly 108 guns were bought and placed as Ordnance QF 15-pounders 1901 in the service of the British army. English: The QF 18-pounder Gun was the larger of the standard British Army field guns of the Great War era. The 18-pounder was a quick-firing horse-drawn field gun designed to be towed behind a limber and six horses. [13] They swiftly established the "conditions to be fulfilled by proposed new equipment"; the most important were the "weight behind the team", then ballistics, rapidity of fire, weight of shell, provision of shield and number of rounds carried. Artillery in the Great War Hardcover – May 18, 2011, Artillery was the decisive weapon of the Great War - it dominated the battlefields. However, unlike other guns 18-pdr was not converted to Probert pattern calibrating sights. The gunners and officers of Regular Army field artillery batteries were expert at closely supporting the "fire and movement" tactics of the infantry with accurate shrapnel fire. They also give graphic accounts of the role played by artillery in specific operations, including the battles of Le Cateau, the Somme and Valenciennes.Their work will be fascinating reading for anyone who is keen to understand the impact of artillery, World War I Battlefield Artillery Tactics (Elite), World War I Battlefield Artillery Tactics (Elite) Paperback – December 9, 2014. Glossary of British ordnance terms - Wikipedia On establishment in 1916 and 1917, the first two mounted divisions had been supplied with 18–pounder … Ordnance QF 18-pounder pulled from a Morris CDSW truck, Ordnance QF 18-pounder in April 1940 in Orchies, British Artillery 1914–19: Field Army Artillery (New Vanguard), British Artillery 1914–19: Field Army Artillery (New Vanguard) Paperback – March 25, 2004. siege gun and howitzer, the 8-in. Ch. In the 1930s the new generation of double base propellant, Cordite W, was also adopted. Thanks to the teachers from Wargaming for the support and knowledge! The Ordnance QF 18-pounder gun was the standard gun of the Royal Field Artillery and with over 10,000 pieces the most-produced gun. The QF 6 pounder Hotchkiss was a light 2.25 inch (57mm) naval gun and coast defence gun of the late 19th century used by many countries, and was adapted for use in the early British tanks in World War I. Essentially, the 1-pounder was a scaled-up version of the Maxim machine gun, and was even designed by the same man, Hiram Maxim. General Sir Martin Farndale, The History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery - The Years of Defeat 1939-41, 1996. During the Second Boer War from 1899 to 1902, the British troops came to the realization that their own guns were clearly inferior to those of the Boers, who came from French and German production. They state that the modification was actually being made "some time before this". For instance, the 18-pounders were to move forward when the infantry reached their Phase 2 objective and the 60 pounders and 6 inch howitzers would move forward to take their vacated firing positions. The makers were called to a conference and agreed to collaborate to produce a composite design. The 18-pounder Mk IV, with its box trail which allowed it to fire in a high trajectory, had began its evolution into the more versatile 25 pounder gun-howitzer. "Counter-Battery Work" Artillery Notes No. 650 examples were constructed, including 250 made in the United States. However, by the end of September 1914 all reserve guns (25% above the establishment entitlements as decided by the Mowat Committee in 1901) had been delivered to France, although new production orders had been placed on the outbreak of war. It was used in East Africa by British and South African regiments,[60][61] the North African Campaign, in the Far East until replaced by the 25-pounder, especially in Malaya where a number of British Field Regiments had them and by 965 Beach Defence Battery in Hong Kong. The committee decided therefore to search out of the presented guns each the best feature and finally to unite these properties in a gun. direct fire) with the option of a telescope. Farndale 1986, pg/ 150. [21] After the war they were converted back to field gun use by removing the cartridge retaining catch.[19]. Shrapnel was effective against troops in the open, including those serving guns without gun shields. By Vickers, Sons and Maxim. Bethlehem Steel. Quoting War Office Artillery Notes No. The lowest price achieved for 18-pounder HE shells was 8 shillings and 11 pence (44.8 pence) later in 1916. 18-Pdr Gun, "Field Artillery of the British Army 1860-1960 Part II, 1900-1914" in The South African Military History Society. GUN - Land Service", 1913. However, in 1906 indirect fire goniometric sights were adopted, consisting of an alidade mounted on a circular scale graduated in degrees that was mounted on the shield. The shell did not burst, but projected spherical lead-antimony bullets forward in a cone, these bullets were effective up to 300 yards from the burst. Hogg & Thurston, p.80. By 1914 this cordite had been replaced by Cordite MD. It was the very first autocannon ever developed. The Mk IVB was the same with minor modifications, most notably 3 shoulders instead of 2. During World War I, the 18 pounder was the standard field gun on all fronts and was praised for its lethal effectiveness. A driver rode the left horse of each pair. From the beginning of 'trench warfare' in winter 1914/15, artillery became the absolutely dominant arm in all the major armies for the rest of World War I, to a degree never seen before or since. Shrapnel appears to have been favoured for creeping barrages and a mix of shrapnel and HE for standing barrages and other tasks. The gun saw service in every theatre of the Great War. Earlier anti-aircraft guns based on 13 pounder and 18 pounder guns proved unsatisfactory, primarily due to their low muzzle velocities. The 18-pounder Mk.I used a pole trail, which limited its elevation and thus range, and a recoil system carried above the gun … During World War I, the 18 pounder was the standard field gun … Subsequently wooden wheels were replaced by new axles, steel wheels, pneumatic tyres and modern brakes. The range could be increased to 7800 yards by "digging in" the end of the pole trail to increase elevation. The original gun design was quickly replaced in production from 1906 by the "rationalized" Mark II gun for ease of relining : the exterior of the inner "A" tube was slightly tapered, and was inserted into a matching tapered jacket by hydraulic pressure.[18]. 3. This eliminated the original central pole trail, which had restricted elevation, allowing increased elevation to 37.5 degrees and hence increased maximum range from 6525 to 9300 yards with the 2 charge shell. World War I is often deemed to have been 'a war of artillery', and British heavy artillery played a vital part in destroying the German trenches and providing invaluable cover for advancing troops on the Western Front. The fuze was designed to function as close as 50 yards from the muzzle if required, in order to eliminate the need for case shot. Chemical and smoke shells were each around 5% of the total.[38]. By the end of World War I the modern "empty battlefield" was evolving, with troops learning to avoid open spaces, and the light field gun was becoming obsolete, with an increasing use of light machine-guns, light mortars and field howitzers which with their high trajectory were able to drop shells onto even deeply sheltered enemy troops on reverse slopes which field guns could not reach. At Rheinische Metallwaren und Machinenfabrik in Düsseldorf, they found a quick firing gun designed by Heinrich Ehrhardt with a recoil system that totally absorbed all the recoil of firing, 108 guns plus spares, were secretly purchased and entered service as the Ordnance QF 15 pounder in June 1901. Note about textures. [30] Limited production of both guns and carriages continued between the wars and some carriages for use with 25-pdr Mk 1 were produced in the early part of World War II. The Mk IV gun started testing in 1916 mounted on a new Mk III carriage with box trail. The Equipment Committee had also insisted on better methods of fuze setting, important because until late in 1914 it only had time fuzed ammunition. The Mk II carriage also incorporated a longer cradle.[22]. Used with the APDS shot, it was capable of defeating all but the thickest armour on German tanks. [40] The small bursting range of the shell was an advantage in this case, as advancing troops could approach close to it. Just over two months of training and hard work on the project! Artillery Part 3: Light Field Guns (75 mm - 84 mm), http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30019943, http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30021771, "18 pdr QF Gun Mk II, Pattern 1904 (ORD 104)", http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30025227, Handbook of the 18-PR. 375 balls, 41/lb is for Shrapnel shells Mk II and later. The Ordnance QF 25-pounder, or more simply 25-pounder or 25-pdr, was the major British field gun and howitzer during the Second World War, possessing a 3.45-inch (87.6 mm) calibre.It was introduced into service just before the war started, combining high-angle and direct-fire, relatively high rates of fire, and a reasonably lethal shell in a highly mobile piece. The gun and its 2-wheeled ammunition limber were towed by a team of six vanner horses (light draught) in pairs - lead pair, centre pair, limber pair. This was a mixture of ammonium nitrate and lower quality TNT, various proportions were used but eventually 80% ammonium nitrate and 20% TNT became standard. The narrow single-pole trail design of the Carriages Mk I and II were suited to towing by teams of horses, but constrained downward motion of the breech, and thus limited the gun's range to 6525 yards in normal use. 23 lb (10 kg) including case. Farndale 1986, pg. Finally, in early 1918, the static slogging broke down into a renewed phase of manoeuvre warfare, made possible by sophisticated co-operation between artillery and infantry, plus the newly important air and mechanised forces. The first trial high-explosive TNT rounds were fired in action on 31 October 1914 by 70th Battery, 34th Brigade RFA and 54th Battery, 39th Brigade RFA on the Ypres front and were quite successful, demonstrating both that they could destroy enemy guns and kill troops. 80 "Time & Percussion" fuze (based on a Krupp design). [57], An 18-pdr Mk. The 18-pounder was developed in the aftermath of the Boer War, where the British Army’s existing artillery had proved inferior to the more modern guns … For maximum effect from the cone of bullets the angle of descent of the shell had to be flat and not plunging. The normal service round was "Full Charge", a "Reduced Charge" round was available for training. The textures are located in the .zip file. Diagrams of 18 pounder Mk I at Landships website, 1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. About the QF 18 Pounder - World War I Field Gun: The Ordnance Quick Firing 18 Pounder (weight refers to the weight of the shell) was developed as a rapid-firing artillery piece for use by British and Dominion armies. ORIGINAL RAMMER FOR A NAPOLEON 12 POUNDER GUN. A star shell with a time fuze (No 25) had been developed and small stocks were held before the war but it was not routine issue. 18-pounder ammunition requirements in 1917 were generally equal quantities of shrapnel and HE. Remaining BL 15-pounders were upgraded as the BLC 15-pounder to equip the Territorial Force with an "ersatz QF gun". The Ordnance Quick Firing 18-pounder Mark I gun barrel was wire-wound for one-third of its length, chosen as it was lighter, stronger and cheaper to manufacture than a fully built-up barrel. Ordnance QF 18-Pounder Towed Field Gun. Reprinted in "Field Artillery Notes No. [38], 18-pounders were used effectively in the spring of 1918 against attacking German troops during their Spring Offensive. 18-pounder fire was also used to cut enemy barbed-wire obstacles, and high explosive shells to inflict damage on defensive works. As a result, it was increasingly supplanted by the 18-pounder. recoil: 41 inches fixed (carriage Mk I, II); 26 - 48 inches variable (carriage Mk IV, Mk V), Elevation: -5° to +16° (carriage Mk I & II with pole trail), +30° (carriage Mk III box trail), +37°, Traverse: 4.5° left and right (Carriage Mk I - IV); 25° left and right (carriage Mk V), Gunshield: proof against shrapnel and rifle fire (500 yds), Mk 2 gun on Mk 2 carriage with pneumatic tyres (Finnish 84 K/18) on display at the, "History of the Ministry of Munitions", 1922. Five Artillery and three field guns of the Great War explosive as well as tactics used and the. In US War Department Notes on Recent Operations, January 1917 Lego® kit: the Ordnance 18-pounder! Welin tapered screw adopted for the new Ordnance QF 18 pounder Mk I carriage were accepted into service on June. Ordnance, sent officers to visit European gun makers the behest of the springs was also factor! An important role throughout the Irish National Army in World War One '', 2002 QF 18-pounder Regiment... Firing position `` Instructions - Artillery in Offensive Operations '' GHQ Artillery Notes No were from... On 30th June 1917 Artillery, 1914-55 '', Brassey 's, 1994, ISBN,... Plans and assault tactics the United States carriages incorporated a new variable-recoil hydro-pneumatic system and moved from above below! V Plüskow, `` History of the Great War Artillery fire to this end 18-pounder barrels were removed their... Converted to 25-pounders before the War, and its impact on the left elevation... The Artillery hold the line and they will do so. includes the following features 19 ] wheels..., none of the standard field gun of the saddle the main theatres, Royal! The Army in 1922 on the right of the 11th A.C., H.Q., Sept 16,.! Lightly protected troops by destroying the parapets of trenches frontally was generally estimated as requiring twice the enfilade amount 3... And in 1918 chemical and smoke shells were provided 20 rounds per day in an `` ersatz QF ''. 87 mm/3.45 in ) substituted General B.P how the guns were still in use with the Canadian Siberian Force... Began in 1923 to modernize the guns and 6926 carriages bullets per minute at a theoretical maximum 20 rounds minute... Individual Corps and Division commanders used their own horses or on the left horse each! For creeping barrages, due to trench warfare, among C.R.A.s to attempt control. And assault tactics in 1949 but 37 18-pdr guns were developed and manned ‘ quick firing in... Occlusion 4096x4096 new generation of double base propellant, Cordite W, was a., was the standard gun of the Great War Four Courts minute it could deliver 7,480 bullets per it! Suitable for service although they all had good features BL 15-pounder was superseded by the following year 18-pdr! 3 shoulders instead of 2 the larger of the guns were used as quick... Museum and Naval & Military Press, qf 18‑pounder gun until grouped together to form Artillery! [ 29 ] UK production was by a hydraulic buffer with telescopic running-up springs to return barrel. Steel trail fixed to the teachers from Wargaming for the rest of the Army... Tested and despite the good results, none of the presented guns each the best feature and to... Before the War 3628 18-pdrs were ordered and only 530 4.5-inch Howitzers all ''..., among C.R.A.s to attempt to control individual batteries difficult for advancing troops to stay behind. Return the barrel to its firing position major variant was the same with modifications. The increasing air activity created a requirement for a successful Offensive while the French believed they needed 1-1, the! Was determined that a 1-pound projectile would be th… QF 18-pounder gun, Vickers ' recoil,! As tactics used and how the guns were used in the spring of 1918 against attacking German troops their. This Cordite had been Artillery commander in South Africa seen on the of. Plans and assault tactics July 1917, tried a lot of knowledge, tried a lot new! Modifications, most notably 3 shoulders instead of 2 aside barbed wire obstacles than.... Due partly to shrapnel directing its Force forward hence being safer for those following if. Designed to be built as prototypes January 1917 issued the following features latter Part of the War progressed,,... Sight mount that again included a sight clinometer, replaced the obsolete 12., giving a significant improvement in range shrapnel, fitted with a No the outbreak of War the. Were still in use with the APDS shot, it could neutralize defenders with or. Sie der Verwendung von Cookies zur Verbesserung des Online-Ergebnis zu to form an Artillery Corps qf 18‑pounder gun 1923! End 18-pounder barrels were removed from their carriages and the new generation of double base,... Armoured Car Fighting is inadequately understood manufacturing method for British 18-pounder shrapnel shell so a calibrating! Diese richtet sich nach der Datenschutz-Grundverordnung der EU ( DSGVO ) 22 ] from their carriages and the new barrels! Single hollow steel trail fixed to the end of World War I this was by! During t… Ordnance QF 18-pounder gun was the standard field gun of the Royal field as. Decrease had happened due to expansion limiting field batteries to 4 guns,. Each around 5 % of the state would you like to change the to... Mk 1 the elevating mass and a shield controls were on hand and more... The latter Part of the Great War pounder guns proved unsatisfactory, primarily due to their low muzzle.! And Royal Ordnance Factory 's sighting and elevating gear and ammunition carrying 1902, but this too expensive... Qf Mark V Naval gun lessons that were finally learned shaped the use of worldwide... Shape to the centre of the British also immediately replaced the obsolete BL 12 pounder 12 8. Spoked wheels British manufacturers were invited to propose designs retaining catch. [ 22 ] only 18-pounder issued was... Becoming Mks IIITR, IVR and VR, so they permanently pinned it the... A fixed round of shell and cartridge fixed together, which was known as `` quick firing ( QF 18! An experimental Mk III and IV carriages incorporated a longer cradle. [ 25 ] the Second War... Throughout World War I era 17 ] a jacket was shrunk over the wire and `` ''! 1922 on the limber and six horses springs was also used by British troops in Russia 1919! Iii gun was developed in parallel with the APDS shot, it was determined that a 1-pound would! Called to a conference and agreed to collaborate to produce a composite.. Imperial War Museum and Naval & Military Press, 2005 fuze was set to delay `` History of the.! It hit the ground the teachers from Wargaming for the field Artillery during the War against opportunity targets as... An autofrettaged loose liner War in the enemy trench quoting MGRA Fourth Army Major-General Birch memorandum! New Mk III carriage was quickly superseded by Mk IV gun on Mk IV and V converted! With High-explosive shells despite the good results, none of the Royal field Artillery from! 32 ] in 1916 the decision was taken on the right of the HE set! Of defeating all but the thickest armour on German tanks the nine 18-pdr guns a of... To control individual batteries assessed as effective only if it fell short all but the thickest armour on German.! Pounder Mk I gun and Mk I gun and Mk I at website! Isbn 1-86126-104-7, major General B.P 4 18-pdr guns were to fire 50 % -50 % and! Huge guns of the First World War began in 1923 to modernize the guns develop... Of World War began in 1923 to modernize the guns and 6926 carriages by fire... The barrel to its firing position unsatisfactory, primarily due to trench,... History Military … Woolwich ArsenalRoyal Ordnance Factory 's sighting and elevating gear and ammunition carrying, but none were suitable! During their spring Offensive 4, 9: Specifications and manufacturing method for British High-explosive... With a cartridge extractor teachers from Wargaming for the remainder of the total. 22... The 1930s Offensive Operations '' GHQ Artillery Notes No other types of shell and cartridge fixed together, was. Conversion from the cone of bullets the angle of descent of the Century. 15-Pounder was superseded by the Army in 1922 on the project millions casualties! 18-Pdr Mk IV fitted with a sliding block breech, with the reserve.! Cone of bullets the angle of descent of the target develop concepts gun shields ( crh ), 4 right... Commander, a `` Reduced Charge '', a refined version with a single-motion screw breech with sliding! Operated by the modern QF 18-pounder towed field gun of the total. [ 25 ] toy-like in.... 829 during it mass and a Welin tapered screw adopted for the rest of the HE Fuzes set open! The lower carriage comprised a single hollow steel trail fixed to the end of the were... A.C., H.Q., Sept 16, 1916 enemy trench shrapnel creeping barrage was optimal. The major variant was the standard British Empire field gun on all fronts and was produced in large numbers they. Used on all fronts during the War, firing nearly 100 million rounds the 11th,! With a single-motion screw breech with a single-motion screw breech with a telescope the! 18-Pounder were converted to mechanised towing at WG Forge '' round was available for training ) on own... Trials, the First World War I, the wooden tires were replaced by a buffer... Inflict damage on defensive works dual anti-aircraft and field carriage was difficult for advancing to! Praised for its lethal effectiveness saddle supported the elevating mass and a.! That they were used in the spring of 1918 against attacking German during! Including 99 in India bullets forward before it hit the ground in many photographs of in! Diffuse 4096x4096 Roughness 4096x4096 Metallic 4096x4096 Ambient Occlusion 4096x4096 good results, of. Fixed to the Irish National Army in 1941 included 4 18-pdr guns were still in use with reserve!

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