It has been noted that tannin from bark is rich in phenolic compounds and could therefore absorb the free formaldehyde. The parameters used to characterize the modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were: free-formaldehyde, gel time, viscosity, pH, and solid content. 3) shows that for L=35%, the pH increased with increase of (S/PL) molar ratio. DOI: 10.1039/C4RA09595B, Zhao, M., Jing, J., Zhu, Y., Yang, X., Wang, X., and Wang, Z. The scheme of the bench-scale vacuum pyrolysis experimental setup was given in Figure 1. A term used in the construction industry to describe materials that have no added urea-formaldehyde in the core and lamination construction process. A wide variety of phenolic plywood options are available to you, such as formaldehyde emission standards, veneer board surface finishing, and veneer board surface material. The results of the tensile shear strength were found to be above minimum standard requirement (1.0 MPa) of EN 314-2 standard for gluing quality of class 3 (exterior conditions) (Table 2). 2007, 2008), or kenaf (Yan2009), and agricultural waste such as sugar cane bagasse and wheat straw (Hoareau et al. Results obtained were discussed according to the requirements for adhesives utilization in plywood manufacture, and the optimum operating conditions were selected. FTIR spectrum of lignin raw material. Tensile shear strength determines the bond strength between the veneers of plywood. There are vast differences in the chemistry between the two types of adhesives. DOI: 10.15376/biores.6.3.2492-2503. The solids content of the modified resins was found to be lower than that of the commercial PF resin (48.32 wt%), but it was higher than the solids content of the lab-made produced PF resin (40.65 wt%). The structural differences and similarities between the prepared resins were determined by FTIR spectroscopy. 2017). The fitted model for gel time gave an R2 value of 99.38% and a standard deviation of residuals (SDR) of 0.18. The main contents of the glue is formaldehyde and urea. By contrast, organosolv lignin, hydrolysis lignin, and soda lignin are produced in minor quantities. “Modification of lignins for use in phenolic resins,” ACS Symposium Series 385, 55-67. PF resins have long been used as adhesive in the production of wood-based panels such as plywood, fibreboard, and particleboard, due to their excellent bonding performance, water resistance and durability. Similarly, these bands are also present in LPF with 35% and 50% of lignin. Holz Als Roh Und Werkstoff, v. 59, p. 266-271, 2001. “The isolation and characterization of lignin of kenaf fiber,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 114(3), 1896-1901. kinetics of tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesives as determined by DSC. For each studied variable, the analyses of variances were performed, and all the hypothesis tests were carried out at 95% confidence level. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood sawdust was used in this study as lignocellulosic biomass, which was one of the widespread tree species in the world. %). Experimental Conditions and Properties of Synthesized Modified Phenol Formaldehyde Resins. (2008). In the FT-IR spectrum of all the resins, the O-H vibrations of hydroxyl groups indicating the presence of aromatics are represented by the absorbance peak between 3500 and 3200 cm-1. The bending properties of the plywood specimens, three-point bending strength (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), were determined according to EN 310 (1993) standard. 2006, 2007; Hu et al.2011;Mancera et al. Different modified phenol formaldehyde resins were prepared and characterized using alkaline rice straw lignin structurally modified by hydroxymethylation reaction. Ghorbani, M., Liebner, F., van Herwijnen, H. W. G., Pfungen, L., Krahofer, M., Budjav, E., and Konnerth, J. Fig. 2016; Tachon et al. Journal of Analytical and AppliedPyrolysis, v. 82, p. 145-150, 2008. 1994; Alonso et al. for Plastics, Phenolic Resins, Determination of Free Formaldehyde Content by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method. 3. Table 4. Defect-free beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) veneers with dimensions of 500 mm x 500 mm x 1.5 mm were used in the production of plywood panels. The FTIR spectra of (a) unmodified (PF) and (b) modified (LPF) with L=35% and (c) L=50% are shown in Fig. DOI: 10.1002/app.29881, Yang, S., Wen, J. L., Yuan, T. Q., and Sun, R. C. (2014). Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK; 1991 Lab-made PF resin and bio-oil modified PF resins were produced in the laboratory resin reactor. Fernández-Rodríguez, J., Erdocia, X., Sánchez, C., González Alriols, M., and Labidi, J. Synthesis of phenolic resol resins using cornstalk-derived bio-oil produced by direct liquefaction in hot-compressed phenol-water. The same dependency of gel time on lignin content and [S/(P+L)] molar ratio was reported by Alonso and Vázquez (Vázquez et al. FIGURE 3 FT-IR spectra of PF resins with and without bio-oil.Â. Organosolv lignin and modified phenolic resin,” MokuzaiGakkaishi 40(10), 1073-1078. TABLE 1 Properties of the unmodified and modified PF resins.Â. There are short term and long term health risks associated with formaldehyde depending on the level and amount of exposure. The pellets were prepared with a mixture of 300 mg potassium bromide and 5-10 mg of analyzed samples. The chemical composition of the bio-oil was determined by GC/MS analysis. Podschun, J., Saake, B., and Lehnen, R. (2015). (1983). Plywood is manufactured to two basic adhesive types: Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) and amino plastic, which includes Melamine Urea Formaldehyde (MUF) and Urea Formaldehyde (UF). This spectrum is characterized by a broad band of OH stretching located at 3415 cm-1, which is attributed to the hydroxyl groups in phenolic and aliphatic structures, and the bands at 2933 cm-1and 2849 cm-1, arising from CH stretching in the aromatic methoxyl groups and the methyl and meythylene groups of the side chains. Phenolic glue is a synthetic polymer made by combining phenol with formaldehyde. This peak could be attributed to the presence of bio-oil in the modified resin since it was not found in the spectra of the commercial and lab-made PF resins. (1979). A no-aldehyde emission hardener for tannin-based wood adhesives for exterior panels. 2015; Fernandez-Rodriguez et al. FIGURE 2 GC/MS chromatogram of the bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of 500 °C at a heating rate of 15 °C.min-1) (A: furfural, B: 5-methyl-2-furancarboxadehyde, C: phenol, D: 3- methyl-phenol, E: 4-methyl-phenol, F: 2-methoxy-phenol, G: 2,3-dimethyl-phenol, H: naphthalene, I: 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol, J: benzenediol).Â. Some larger molecular compounds from bio-oil may lead to higher viscosity in the bio-oil modified PF resol resins. DOI: 10.1002/app.1983.070280209. The ready-to-use commercial PF resin was supplied by Polisan chemical company in Izmit, Turkey. West Conshohocken, PA, ASTM International, 2008. [ Links ], YI, J., ZHANG, J., YAO, S., CHANG, J., LI, B. This property was found to be 2.01 and 2.11 MPa for the plywood specimens produced with the lab-made and commercial PF resins, respectively. Article submitted: October 11, 2011; Peer review completed: January 8, 2012; Revised version received and accepted: August 12, 2018; Published: September 7, 2018. Formaldehyde is a common precursor to more complex compounds and materials. Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry, v. 19, p. 137-143, 2013. [ Links ], TEJADO, A., PENA, C., LABIDI, J., ECHEVERRIA, J.M., MONDRAGON, I. Physico-chemical characterization of lignins from deferent sources for use in phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis. Urea is the main cause of high solids content. All the modified PF resins with 5-20 wt% bio-oil had better flexural properties than those of the lab-made and commercial PF resins. The results obtained for solid content were between 41 and 45%. Six different types of plywood panels were produced using the experimental PF resins which were commercial PF resin, lab-made PF resin, and PF resins modified with bio oil of 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% contents, respectively. The modified phenol formaldehyde resins were dissolved in isopropanol-water mixture (2:1, v/v) and hydrochloric acid was added until pH was in the range 2 to 3. In other study, Aydin et al. The reaction mixture was heated to 90 °C and kept at 90 °C until dynamic viscosity of resin reached between 600-800 cps. In any case, the high free formaldehyde content can be lower than the desired value by urea addition. The tensile shear strength of the plywood specimens produced with all the modified PF resins were found to be higher than that of the specimens produced with lab-made and commercial PF resins. (2007) reported that the FT-IR spectrum of the lignin-PF resol contained more complex functional groups than that of the reference resol. The modified lignin from these later methods could partially replace phenol in phenol-formaldehyde resin synthesis. The PF resin produced with the 20 wt% bio-oil contains lots of hydroxyl methyl and hydrocarbons, which is beneficial to form the crosslinking structure and improved the bonding performance of between the wood veneers. In this research work, modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were prepared using hydroxymethylated alkaline rice straw lignin as a substitute for petroleum-based phenol in the range of 20 to 50% by weight. The prepared hydroxymethylated lignin was copolymerized with phenol and formaldehyde at 80 ºC in a glass flask equipped with a condenser, a thermometer to control temperature, and an overhead stirrer. However, it was reported that lignins present some certain limitations, such as the lower number of reactive sites, low phenolic hydroxyl groups, and the steric impediments. Neste estudo, teve como obejtivo usar o bio-óleo como alternativa ao fenol à base de petróleo na produção de resina de fenol-formaldeído (PF) utilizada na fabricação de compensado exterior. Exposure occurs by breathing air that contains formaldehyde. The presence of bio-oil during the synthesis process of a biopolymer clearly affects the viscosity of the resulting resins. Diagram of the experimental protocol. However, there has been little research published on the preparation and characterization of phenol formaldehyde resin using alkaline rice straw lignin. The diagram of the entire experimental protocol is shown in Fig.2. Lignin as a component in phenol formaldehyde resol resin,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 33(8), 2915-2924. DOI: 10.1002/app.26941, Tejado, A., Kortaberria, G., Pena, C., Blanco, M., Labidi, J., Echeverria, J. M., and Mondragon, I. Formaldehyde releases into the air from many sources. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2004. Seis diferentes tipos de painéis de compensado foram produzidos a partir das resinas PF experimentais que eram resina PF comercial, resina PF feita em laboratório e resinas PF modificadas com óleo biológico com conteúdo de 5, 10, 15 ou 20% em peso, respectivamente. II. The bio-based PF resol resins had higher molecular weights, higher polydispersity indices, shorter gel times, and faster curing rates than the lab synthesized control PF resin (ZHAO et al., 2013). In any case, the final pH of the synthesized resol resins can be corrected by addition of base or acid solution. As amostras de compensado produzidas com a resina PF modificada com bio-óleo até 20% em peso apresentaram maior força de cisalhamento de tração (condição úmida), módulo de ruptura e módulo de elasticidade em flexão em comparação com as resinas PF comerciais e feitas em laboratório. The modeled response surface (Fig. In the PF, a band at 3373 cm-1was observed, which shows the presence of OH groups. The term refers specifically to the binders used in composite panel production. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, v. 70, p. 19-28, 2002. The FT-IR spectra of the bio-oil modified PF resol resins contained more complex functional groups than those of the control resin. It’s generally used as bonding agents and binder for particleboard, plywood sheets, hardboard, and oriented strain board. Phenolic Plywood is common Eastern European or Scandinavian Birch plywood (EURO Birch or Baltic Birch) bonded with waterproof phenol resin adhesive and overlaid on both sides with the phenol film (grade F/F). The data acquisition system used was G1035A software with a NIST library. Holz Als Roh Und Werkstoff , v. 47, p. 491-494, 1989. Authors wish to thank the Commission for Universities and Research of the DIUiE of the Generalitat of Catalonia and the company Henkel KgaA for support of this project. [ Links ], WANG, W., ZHAO, Z., GAO, Z., GUO, M. Whey protein-based water resistant and environmentally safe adhesives for plywood. DOI: 10.1080/02773819909349617. (2017) confirm a similar trend of increasing viscosities of lignin-based phenolic resins with increasing lignin replacement (Cheng et al. 1. More than 95% of phenol all over the world, the primary component in PF resins, is made from petroleum-derived benzene (YI et al., 2012). The low values of free formaldehyde found for the formulated modified phenolic resins are in the same range of those reported in a previous study that reported values 0.02% and 0.12 % (Vazquez et al. Yan, T. T., Xu, Y. Q., and Yu, C. W. (2009). The Effect of Nanocellulose Addition to Phenol-formaldehyde Adhesive in Water-resistant Plywood Manufacturing. [ Links ], VÁZQUEZ, G. Preparation of wood adhesives by polycondensation of phenolic acids from Pinus pinaster bark with resols. A brominated phenol/formaldehyde resin with ca. TYPES AND COLORS OF FILM FACED PLYWOOD Overlaying Colors Available: Dark Brown, Light Brown, Green, Black, Red. (2014) reported that tensile shear strength (EN 314-1 method, class 3) of three-layer plywood produced with commercial PF resin with 48.3% solids content was 1.2 MPa. Health Effects Formaldehyde, a colorless, pungent-smelling gas, can cause watery eyes, burning sensations in the eyes and throat, nausea, and difficulty in breathing in some humans exposed at elevated levels (above 0.1 … TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLYWOOD BONDED WITH PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESOL RESIN SYNTHESIZED WITH BIO-OIL, PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DE COMPENSADO DE MADEIRA COLADA COM RESINA DE RESOL FENOL-FORMALDEÍDO SINTETIZADA COM BIO-ÓLEO. These bands are assigned to C=O stretching in unconjugated ketone and carbonyl bond in ester group or in conjugated p-substituted aryl ketone, respectively (Khan and Ashraf 2005).The absorption bands at 1600 cm-1 and 1500 cm-1are assigned to aromatic ring vibrations. Use of lignin separated from bio-oil in oriented strand board binder phenol-formaldehyde resins. Fig. DOI: 10.1016/j.jechem.2017.02.007. “Preparation and performance of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesives,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives64, 163-167. These differences can provide information as to the structure of methylene bridges. Each spectrum was recorded at a rate of 10 scans, in the range from 4000 to 400 cm-1 with a resolution of 4 cm-1. Infrared spectra of lignin-based phenol formaldehyde (LPF) resins showed structural similarity with that of PF resin. [ Links ], SUKHBAATAR, B., STEELE, P.H., INGRAM, L.I., KIM, M.G. [ Links ], EN 310. Phenolic resins are found in myriad industrial products. FTIR-spectra of (a) PF, (b) LPF with L=35% (LPF10), and (c) LPF with L=50% (LPF2). BioResources, 6, 3339-3351, 2011. A., de Jong, E., Guran, B., and Abacherli, A. They reported that three-layer panels made with resins having 50 wt% phenol replacement in the surface and 25 wt% phenol replacement in the core had mechanical properties above the requirements specified by the Canadian Standard CSA O437.0-93 for OSB products. China; b: Laboratory of Biological Engineering, Faculté des Sciences et Téchniques, Sultan Moulay Slimane University (USMS), Mghila BP.523, Béni-Mellal, 23000, Morocco; c: Department of Chemistry, Polydisciplinary Faculty-USMS, Mghila BP.592, Béni-Mellal, 23000, Morocco; * Corresponding; In this last group, only the soda lignins have a short-term potential for industrial availability. PT Dover Chemical, based in Jakarta, Indonesia, manufactures formaldehyde-based resins. Six different types of plywood panels were produced from the experimental PF resins which were commercial PF resin, lab-made PF resin, and PF resins modified with bio oil of 5, 10, 15 or 20 wt% contents, respectively. Selex® Plywood boards are constructed using layers of pruned pieces from our Radiata Pine plantations, generating panels of a superior appearance, with high strength and rigidity. Solid content was determined by gravimetry from the weighted amount of resin before and after drying the resin samples at 150 °C for 30 min. O bio-óleo obtido a partir de serragem de madeira de pinho usando um reator de pirólise a vácuo a 500 ° C. As resinas de resina PF foram produzidas substituindo até 20% de em peso de fenol com bio-óleo, modificando o processo de síntese química. The fitted model for the viscosity gave an R2 value of 97.40% and a standard deviation of residuals (SDR) of 37. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.02.001, Nada, A. M. A., Elsaied, H., Ibrahem, A. “Development and characterization of a lignin-phenol-formaldehyde wood adhesive using coffee bean shell,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 19(6), 493-509. “Lignin-based wood adhesives,” in: Pizzi, A. “Lignin depolymerization for phenolic monomers production by sustainable processes,” Journal of Energy Chemistry 26(4), 622-631. The results of the characterization of modified phenolic resins, including pH, gel time, viscosity at 25 °C, solids content, and free formaldehyde, are recorded in Table 1 together with the experimental conditions. This lignin was purified by its treatment with sulfuric acid (1%) several times and washed extensively with hot water to remove the inorganic substances and solubilize the residual sugars (El Mansouri et al.2006 and 2011a).The formaldehyde (35to40% aqueous solution) and phenol (99%), used in this work were purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received. The viscosities of the modified resins were higher than the viscosity of the lab-made PF resin, but lower than the viscosity of the commercial PF resin. 1). (2002) synthesized the bio-oil-PF with a phenol substitution of 25 wt% or 50 wt% by bio-oil from the bark of softwood and prepared oriented strandboard (OSB). DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.03.029, Roczniak, K., Biernacka, T., and Skarzynski, M. (1983). [ Links ], OZBAY, G. Catalytic pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust to produce bio-oil: effect of temperature and catalyst additives. The replacement levels of phenol by the bio-oils were 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt% or 20 wt%. Similar results were observed for the phenolic compounds of the bio-oil in this study. The gel time of the PF resins decreased with increasing amount of the bio-oil in the resin. [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ] 1) (Forss and Fuhrmann1979), (b) the material comes from renewable resources, and (c) it can be used as a macromolecular material without previous treatment (Nimz 1983; Pang et al. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 66, p. 68-72, 2014. [ Links ], ROY, C., LIU, X., PAKDEL, H. Process for the production of phenolic-rich pyrolysis oils for use in making phenol-formaldehyde resole resins, US Patent 6143856, Pyrovac Technologies Inc., 2000. The sawdust was dried in an oven at 102 °C for 12 h prior to use as a pyrolysis sample. Standard Test Method for Matrix Solids Content and Matrix Content of Composite Prepreg, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008. DOI: 10.1002/app.2119, Alonso, M. V., Oliet, M., Rodriguez, F., Astarloa, G., and Echeverria, J. M. (2004). DOI: 10.15376/biores.11.1.1828-1842, Pang, B., Yang, S., Fang, W., Yuan, T. Q., Argyropoulos, D. S., and Sun, R. C. (2017). The band at 1018 cm-1 in LPF is characteristic of lignin and is attributed to the C-O of primary alcohol. According to this, LPF2 and LPF10were selected to be tested for plywood manufacturing. BioResources 2020 , 15 , 5388–5401. Alternative adhesive systems that qualify for the NAUF category would include: Phenol Formaldehyde (PF), Poly vinyl acetate (PVA) and Soy. In comparison to the commercial and lab-made PF resins, the bio-oil modified PF resins were found to have larger average molecular weights, higher polydispersity indices, and shorter gel times. Fig. 2 Groups with same letters in each column indicate that there is no statistical difference (p<0.01) between the specimens according to Duncan’s multiply range test. Peng, W. (1994). “Modification of ammonium lignosulfonate by phenolation for use in phenolic resins,” Bioresource Technology 96(9), 1013-1018.DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.09.009, Cheng, S., Yuan, Z., Leitch, M., Anderson, M., and Charles, C. (2013). DOI: 10.1163/1568561054352577, Li, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, S., Gao, Q., Li, J., and Zhang, W. (2018). 2017). 2016; Li et al.2018). Its price and availability are linked to fluctuations of petroleum price. The pH requirements for the resol resins were 9.5 or higher. “Structural modification and characterization of lignosulfonate by a reaction in an alkaline medium for its incorporation into phenolic resins,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 102(4), 3286-3292.DOI: 10.1002/app.24744, El Mansouri, N. E., Pizzi, A., and Salvado, J. Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resol resins are made from formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of an acid or a basic catalyst. Formaldehyde was measured both in the breathing zones of … Phenolic laminates are made by impregnating one or more layers of a base material such as paper, fiberglass, or cotton with phenolic resin and laminating the resin-saturated base material under heat and pressure. 2018). Gel time of the resin was measured by charging 5 g of resin into a test tube and heating the test tube in an oil bath at 100 °C. It’s especially useful for waterproofing, making it ideal for construction panels, beams, and for … (1997). Mechanical test specimens were prepared from the conditioned plywood panels according to European (EN) standards. Shri Shakti Enterprises - Phenol Formaldehyde Resins, Melamine Formaldehyde Resin & Liquid Resin Manufacturer from Delhi, India Shri Shakti Enterprises Rohini, Delhi GST No. 5) shows that for [S/(P+L)]=1.2 molar ratio, the viscosity increased with increase of lignin content (in lower [F/(P+L)] region) and [F/(P+L)] molar ratio. 2014; Podschun et al. The best quality bond is a phenolic bond, which is water boiling proof more than 72 hours and zero formaldehyde emission. Fuel Processing Technology, v. 91, p. 942-950, 2010. “Structure-property relationships for technical lignins for the production of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resins,” Industrial Crops and Products 108, 316-326. However, modified resins with gel time near to 10min can be considered and tested for plywood manufacturing if they present low free formaldehyde content. They were near to the range of values of the commercial resins used for plywood production, which ranges from 45to47% (Alonso et al. Ma, Z., Li, S., Qiao, W., and Ren, S. (2016). (2007). The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of bio-oil modified PF resol resins considered as adhesive in the production of plywood for outdoor applications. Commercial PF resins usually contain a high amount of urea (ZHAO et al., 2010). DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.10.020, Khan, M. A., and Ashraf, S. M. (2005). PF resins have long been used as adhesive in the production of wood-based panels such as plywood, fibreboard, and particleboard, due to their excellent bonding performance, water resistance and durability. The acquisition conditions were: spectral width of 4000to400 cm-1, 32 accumulations, and 4-cm-1 resolution. Disclosed is an improved phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin that does not require fillers or extenders and is capable of bonding wafers or veneers having a moisture content of 10% or above. Based on the FT-IR analysis, the bio-oil was effectively combined with the PF resin at 5-20 wt% replacement level. Plywood - bond quality - test methods. Lignin is a good candidate to replace phenol in the phenol formaldehyde resins’ formulation because (a) its polyphenolic structure is similar to that of phenolic resin (Fig. Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant 115O453, ALMA, M.H., BASTURK, M.A., SHIRAISHI, N. Cocondensation of NaOH-catalyzed liquefied wood wastes, phenol, and formaldehyde for the production of resol-type adhesives. 2004; Vishtal and Kraslawski 2011). A slow cure lead to longer pressing time, and therefore the manufacture of the plywood must be expensive. “Optimization of experimental variables to modify lignin fromEucalyptus globulus under alkaline catalysis,” BioResources 11(1), 1828-1842. (2006). Significant differences among the average values of the plywood types were determined using Duncan’s multiple range test. Workplace air lignin–adhesive Research for wood Composites, Forest and Wildlife Research Center are Dark in colour a... 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Melamine urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde resins were produced by substituting up to 20 wt )...:: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2004.04.015, Hu, L., Pan, H.,,... Higher or lower values indicate a slow or fast curing reaction, respectively p. 5036-5039 2011. Resins showed structural similarity with that of PF resin, and fiberboard made with formaldehyde-containing resins, BioResources... Solution ( 10 ), 57996-58004 were observed for the plywood specimens 1 and 4 resins 2 and 5 3. Some larger molecular compounds from bio-oil in the resin content in the...., phenol formaldehyde plywood, pH, and soda lignin are produced in the PF resins! Addition-Cure-Type and condensation-addition-type phenolic resins are distributed to the experimental data for pH at L ( )... Methylolation, ” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 33 ( 8 ), Springer, Berlin. Heidelberg! Als Roh Und Werkstoff, v. 66, p. 2679-2691, 2015 41 and 45 % 45 % min the! Substitution level of phenol by fillers or extenders is one way to the... Resin using alkaline rice straw lignin ASTM International, 2008 Respiratory and dermal exposure to phenol-formaldehyde resin-glue components used many. Were discussed according to the binders used in composite panel production bio-based thermosets ”. Lignin-Based wood adhesives, v. 82, p. 19-28, 2002 Yu C.. Basic catalyst in phenolic resins formaldehyde resoles: the impact of lignin literature. Decorative Films, and Salvado, J Biernacka, T. cure study of addition-cure-type and condensation-addition-type resins. Component of wood are the consequence of in-plane and out-of-plane stretching of aliphatic -CH2- °C., STEELE, P.H., INGRAM, L.I., KIM, M.G, ensuring high durability to longer time... A Brookfield viscosimeter at 30 rpm at 25 °C to longer pressing time,,!, 32 accumulations, and viscosity ( Y3 ), 5504-5512 European Committee for Standardization,,. Mixture was heated to 90 °C and kept at 90 °C until viscosity! 1429-1432, 2012 105 min content of composite Prepreg, ASTM International, west Conshohocken,,. 10 mL of a methylene bridge lignin by phenolation for improved bio-based thermosets, ” industrial Crops and 108... And 23 °C LPF2 and LPF10were selected to be tested for plywood manufacturing and 1450 indicates! Adhesive properties, ” industrial Crops and Products, v. 174-177, 942-950! Adhesives by polycondensation of phenolic acids from Pinus pinaster bark with resols, 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-phenol 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol! Crossref ] urea, phenolic resins, ” Journal of Energy Chemistry 26 ( 4 ),.. Of resin reached between 600-800 cps the soda lignins have a short-term potential for industrial.! Lignins for lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive synthesis, ” Journal of wood Chemistry and Technology, v. 35 p.! “ Preparation and performance of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesives, ” BioResources 11 ( )! The region of the phenolic group present in LPF is characteristic of lignin structures is 1600.!