paper by . 5. North African peoples encourage marriage within a group, often a kinship group. Traditional relations of kinship have affected the lives of African people and ethnic groups by determining what land they could farm, whom they could marry, and their status in their communities. Answers (1), © 2008-2020 by KenyaPlex.com. Explain the meaning of community according to the African concept of community. In the fourth kind of descent kinship, bilateral descent, each individual is considered equally related to kin on the father's and mother's sides. of Kinship in . In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. (ii) They enhance unity among members of the community. Discuss the types of spirits according to the African concept of spirits. Monogamy is further supported by the ability of men to marry earlier than they could in traditional society because of employment and income opportunities in the modern sector. The women worked, caring for the house, the crops, the children. Africa includes all of them. The primary focus and essential foundation of African society are social groups. The good of the group comes ahead of the good of the individual. Mins. of Kinship in . Is Kinship Important Still? At its most basic levels, according to the Sociology Group, kinship refers to: In traditional African society, men guarded the home and the cattle, or went to war. Give the responsibility of the living towards spirits. Where marital taboo exists decides who can marry whom. Comparing the . A person's place in society was based on their family status. Thus the men remain together, while the women through whom they trace descent are spread among the population. Kinship is the web of relationships woven by family and marriage. Meanwhile, among educated and privileged Africans, especially in the cities, the husband-wife couple is becoming more important as a social and legal unit. Traditional African kinship is a cooperative relationship between household members and members of the larger lineage group. Helping another person experiencing psychosocial or emotional distress and mentoring someone to achieve a life … Traditionally, the ideal marriage is between cousins, including the children of two brothers. One important aspect of kinship behaviour is that an individual is allowed to approach and talk to some relatives but not to others. This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early scholars of the African traditional family. Kinship is also about economic life. In one type of descent group—the lineage—all members know, or believe they know, their exact relationships to one another. Implications for service providers when working with Aboriginal families. Because different societies define kinship differently, they also set the rules governing kinship, which are sometimes legally defined and sometimes implied. This trend sometimes means that nuclear families are growing farther from their kinship networks. It is from this that an individual attaches and understands the values of culture, assimilates the first social roles and acquires the experience of social behavior. This chapter discusses the theoretical perspective of traditional counseling from an African context. Reasons why initiation was important in the African Traditional Society Initiates gain new status in life/he/she moves from childhood to adulthood. gotra and kula. KINSHIP SYSTEM IN AFRICAN COMMUNITIES. First, as Lavenda & Schultz put it, “kinship studies in anthropology were based on the assumption that all societies recognized the same basic genealogical relationships” (2015:374). Date posted: August 28, 2017. Kinship groups formed the government of many African societies. Aboriginal kinship and family structures are still cohesive forces which bind Aboriginal people together in all parts of Australia. A connection among people by blood, marriage, or adoption. Primary and High School Exams in Kenya With Marking Schemes. Most lineage groups in sub-Saharan Africa, in contrast, favor marriage outside the group. In kinship groups, decisions were often made by a council of the eldest members. ). In double-descent systems, every individual belongs to the patrilineal group of the father and the matrilineal group of the mother. Extended ties of kinship remain a vital part of life in contemporary Africa. Next: What is the meaning of kinship ties according to the African concept of kinship?Previous: What are the factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in African communities? (ii) Marriage leads to procreation and passing on the gift of life from one generation to another. At a basic level, kinship is important in anthropology because kinship is important to people. Describe the meaning of kinship ties according to the African concept of kinship. It determines family line relationships i.e. Double descent exists in western and southern Africa among such peoples as the Yako of NIGERIA and the HERERO of NAMIBIA and BOTSWANA. All land is owned by the group. This preview shows page 241 - 244 out of 810 pages. The kinship system was important in the traditional African society because of the following fac to rs. For example, African kinfolk may support women and children while their husbands are away, perhaps by helping paying school fees or other expenses. It determines the rights and obligations of the members in all the sacraments and religious practices from birth to death in family life. In societies without welfare services provided by a central government, kinship provides a “safety net” for individuals—orphans, widows, the elderly, the disabled, and divorced women— who lack an immediate household to care for them. Kinship and marriage are closely linked in several ways. What are the types of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? There is high rate of infant mortality in traditional African societies. things. People can identify with either parent's local groups or with other relatives by marriage. This means that a man cannot have a sexual relationship with someone who shares his sister's name because that women would also be his sister, and sexual relations between siblings are forbidden. In traditional African society the child intuitively jumps, climbs a tree, dances or performs a balancing act because his siblings or his elders do the same. Anthropologists who study kinship have identified four major types of descent: patrilineal, matrilineal, double, and bilateral. Africa has the world's oldest record of human technological achievement: the oldest stone tools in the world have been found in eastern Africa, and later evidence for tool production by our hominin ancestors has been found across Sub-Saharan Africa. Whatever is considered most valuable in society is placed under the direction of men; whatever is considered less valuable is given to women to care for – even when people ostensible know better. It is a complex system that determines how people relate to each other and their roles, responsibilities and obligations in relation to … For example, male children are favored over females in inheriting a father's property. of Traditional African Tribal Life 1. Societies with matrilineal social organization are not necessarily ruled by women. 5. A fairly rare form of kinship is double descent. Forms of descent in Africa: Patrilineality – e.g., Nuer, Hausa, Zulu …. Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. Unilineal descent •Many societies construct kinship groupings, roles, and relationships by tracing descent exclusively through the male - patrilineal - or female - matrilineal - line. 6. Kinship sets guidelines for communication and interactions among people. The stories entertained and educated. 4. •Unilineal kinship institutions occur at over twice the incidence of cognatic ones among the world's cultures. The women worked, caring for the house, the crops, the children. Although many sociologists and anthropologists have attempted to provide definitions of marriage, none of them has been satisfactorily and sufficiently general enough to encompass all its various manifestations. Every society has a way of resolving conflict that is peculiar to them. The griots were important in the transmission of African … Traditionally the Aboriginal family was a collaboration of clans composed of mothers, fathers, uncles, aunties, sisters, brothers, cousins and so … The most common form of such transfer in Africa is called bridewealth. (i) They safeguard the community's traditions and customs. 1Editor’s note: See the comments on this article in … Date posted: August 29, 2017. (7mks) c) what factors have undermined the role of African religious specialists today. All Rights Reserved | Home | About Us | Contact Us | Copyright | Terms Of Use | Privacy Policy | Advertise. West Africans believed their departed ancestors watched over them. Although different cultures have recognized various kinds of kinship, traditional kinship generally means much more than blood ties of a family or household. In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. Rights, obligations, and inheritance are split between the two groups. Because different societies define kinship differently, they also set the rules governing kinship, which are sometimes legally defined and sometimes implied. On one level, kinship rules may determine marriage partners. •The powerful West African Ashanti kingdom developed within a Marriage. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). These obligations form a part of Aboriginal Law. Kinship regulates the behaviour of different kin. Ancestor veneration. Patrilineal descent emphasizes the male side of the family, tracing relationships through the generations from fathers to their children. (i) Marriage leads to expansion of the kinship ties. paper by . Members recognize that they are all part of the group but do not know how they are related to each other. •The resulting units are called unilineal descent groups, either patrilineages or matrilineages according to the prevailing descent rule. A cursory review of the literature suggests that the concept of traditional counseling is rooted in traditional … The study by Mann (2002), notes that in rural areas, networks with relatives outside of the immediate household were still strong and relatives played a major role in contributing financial and emotional support to children in need of care. So used were the women to work that a polygamous situation would at times be provoked by the first wife's asking her husband to take a second wife who could be a help to her in her work. (8mks) b) State the roles of diviners in Traditional African Societies. If a person was born to farmers, they would be farmers, etc. p119. Although she can refuse the cousin's proposal, she needs his permission to marry someone else. Early anthropologists assumed kinship was of paramount importance. The clan, another type of group, is larger than a lineage. Another traditional form of fictive marriage existed among the American Plains Indians in the institution of the berdache. 2. Kinship has several importance in a social structure. Marriage Family and Kinship. Saying prayers/words of blessings for the mother and baby signifies long life. Workers understanding of the concepts of ‘family’ and ‘kinship’ It is important for Workers to have an understanding of the concepts of ‘family’ and ‘kinship’ as they exist for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. What is the role of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? (iv) It promotes mutual love and companionship between a man and woman. Kinship is important to a person and a community's well-being. What is the importance of kinship ties in traditional African community? In this respect, North African and sub-Saharan societies differ widely. Many other pastoral groups, including the Nuer of SUDAN and the ZULU and Swazi of southern Africa, are patrilineal. Why is kinship important in African traditional society? If a person was born to farmers, they would be farmers, etc. Thus, theories of political behavior are aimed at explicating t… (See also Family, Marriage Systems. Among the Bedouin, for example, a boy has the right to marry his father's brother's daughter. Importance . Everybody has kinship in one form or another. The kinship system regulated people’s behavior towards each other. Of course one huge change has been the changing landscape of ideas about gender and the idea of being transgender. Pierre Bourdieu, Levi Strauss and Evans Pritchard are some of the theorists, who have constructed various theories on the basis of kinship relations. produces new dimensions of African traditional religion. But bilateral kin groups do exist among some African peoples who live on hunting and gathering. Zachàr Laskewicz. Although different cultures have recognized various kinds of kinship, traditional kinship generally means much more than blood ties of a family or household. This is a gift from the groom or his family to the bride's family, often in livestock but sometimes in money or other forms of wealth. All societies use kinship as a basis for forming social groups and for classifying people. Explain the importance of kinship in West African cultures. So used were the women to work that a polygamous situation would at times be provoked by the first wife's asking her husband to take a second wife who could be a help to her in her work. Australian Aboriginal peoples - Australian Aboriginal peoples - Kinship, marriage, and the family: The smooth operation of social life depended on obedience to religious precepts and on the operation of kinship, which was the major force regulating interpersonal behaviour. It involves a set of social obligations and expectations that ensures that no one faces tragedy alone. It includes a network of responsibilities, privileges, and support in which individuals and families are expected to fill certain roles. (iv) They determine how members relate to one another. ... griots were important in african society because they were african messengers. The life cycle. However, there is a great amount of variability in kinship rules and patterns around the … Social and geographic mobility, soaring divorce rates, and nontraditional family forms have produced social networks based more on voluntary ties than on traditional bonds of blood and marriage. Some hunter-gatherer societies follow the custom of bride service, which involves the groom moving to the home of his wife's family and hunting or working for his parents-in-law. There were several reasons for this assumption. Significance. The !Kung, for example, believe that any two people with the same name are descended from the same ancestor of that name. In the berdache, a man might assume both the dress and the role of a woman, often "marrying" another man. Mrs. ANELE 51 . Anthropologists call this relationship the avunculate, and in African cultures it may require the uncle to give his best cattle to his nephew or to accept teasing from the nephew. Every child discovers his limbs and in no time at all he also discovers their uses. Be the first to answer! The kinship system was important in the traditional African society because of the following fac to rs. This essay will briefly explore traditional African family patterns explaining the concept of kinship in Africa, the differences and similarities between patrilineal and matrilineal families systems. This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early of! 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